Department of Maternal,Child and Adolescent Health,School of Public Health,Nanjing Medical University
A Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions ( Public Health and Preventive Medicine )
目的 调查和评价南京市秦淮区助餐点空巢人群膳食营养状况，从而为提高养老助餐服务水平、指导该人群科学饮食提供依据。方法 于2019年7月~9月，从南京市秦淮区助餐点随机选择60周岁以上空巢人群作为调查对象，采用面对面访谈的方式获取了83名调查对象的有效信息，主要包括性别、年龄、身高、体重等一般信息和通过辅以食物图谱的24小时膳食回顾法获取的3天膳食信息。结果 该群体超重和肥胖率分别为30.2%和8.4%；该群体各类食物（谷薯类、蔬菜类、水果类、畜禽肉类、水产品、蛋类、奶类及其制品、大豆及坚果类等）的摄入达到推荐量的比例较低，膳食结构不合理。各年龄段合计59.0%的人群膳食能量摄入量低于平均需要量；且宏量营养素的供能比不合理：脂肪的供能比过高，而碳水化合物的供能比过低。该群体的膳食B族维生素、维生素C、钙等主要微量营养素摄入过低，缺乏较为严重。结论 南京市秦淮区助餐点空巢人群超重和肥胖较为常见，膳食结构不合理，主要微量营养素摄入过低；养老助餐机构应根据其特点来提高餐饮服务质量，并对空巢人群加强膳食营养教育。
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate dietary and nutritional status of the empty-nested people in the meal service centers in Qinhuai district of Nanjing city, so as to provide basis for improving the service level of the meal service centers and guiding the empty-nested people to eat scientifically. METHODS From July to September 2019, the empty-nested people aged 60 or above were randomly selected from the meal service centers in Qinhuai district of Nanjing city as the objects of investigation. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain effective information of 83 empty-nested people, including general information on sex, age, height, weight, and 3-day dietary information obtained by 24-hour dietary review assisted with food atlas. RESULTS The rates of overweight and obesity were 30.2% and 8.4% respectively. The intake of all kinds of food (cereals, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, livestock and poultry meat, aquatic products, eggs, dairy and its products, soybeans and nuts, etc.) reached the recommended level in this group was relatively low, and the dietary structure was unreasonable. Moreover, the dietary energy intake of 59.0% of all ages was lower than the estimated energy requirement, and the energy supply ratio of macronutrients was unreasonable: the energy supply ratio of fat was too high, while that of carbohydrate was too low. Furthermore, the main micronutrients such as vitamin B, vitamin C and calcium in the diet of this group were too low and lacked seriously. CONCLUSION The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the empty-nested people in Qinhuai district of Nanjing city is relatively common, the dietary structure is unreasonable, and the main micronutrient intake is too low. The elderly food service institutions should improve the quality of food services according to the characteristics of the empty-nested people and strengthen the education of dietary nutrition for this group.