the National Natural Science Foundation Program，82270790，82070769，81770751，82170769，81870512；the National Natural Science Foundation Program，81900684；Jiangsu Province Natural Science Foundation Program，BK20191063；
Objective :To analyze and summarize the clinical features and diagnosis and treatment experience of brucellosis after renal transplantation. Methods :Clinical data of one case with brucellosis after renal transplantation admitted to the the First Affiliated Hospital of NJMU in may 2022 was collected. The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical experience was summarized and literature review was conducted. Results: At 6 years after renal transplantation, the patient suffered from temperature rise and presented with fever in the afternoon. Blood culture test confifirmed the diagnosis of brucella melitensis infection. The treatment included anti-infecting by the rifampicin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, preventing the incidence of complications actively and protecting the liver and renal function. High clinical effificacy was achieved. During the follow up after discharge, the renal graft was stable and no other infectious symptoms, such as fever was found. Conclusions: Brucellosis after renal transplantation is extremely rare and the common symptom is Malta fever. When the empirical anti-infectious treatment is not effective, Actively inquire about epidemiological exposure history,blood culture and other related tests should be performed to confifirm the diagnosis. The combination of rifampicin and doxycycline is recommended.Therapeutic drugs have interaction with immunosuppressive drugs and have hepatic and renal toxicity, attention should be paid to monitor the concentration of immunosuppressive drugs and liver and kidney function.