To provide a basis for optimizing the allocation of human resources in professional public health institutions.,we described the human resources allocation of professional public health institutions in Jiangsu Province and analyze the equity of various types of health personnel allocation by Gini coefficient, Lorenz curve and Theil index according to resident population and geographical area. The number of personnel in professional public health institutions was 7.79 per ten thousand people in Jiangsu province, but there were great differences among cities.The distribution of Gini coefficient according to population distribution and geographical area is relatively fair, except for managers whose Gini coefficient according to geographical area is 0.533, others are less than 0.4. Theil index showed that the contribution rate of human resources of professional public health institutions in Jiangsu province ranged from 68.76% to 72.01%. The differences of health human resources in professional public health institutions in Jiangsu Province are mainly intra-regional differences, and the fairness of health human resources allocation in some regions does not conform to the level of economic development and the actual needs. It is necessary to reform the personnel authority, improve the promotion mechanism and optimize the allocation of human resources in professional public health institutions with policy support as the guidance.