This paper introduces the general concepts and related theories of health care seeking behavior and scientific health care seeking behavior. Apply the decision-making theory of management to systematically expound the health care seeking behavior, and analyze the relevant factors that affect the health care seeking behavior of cancer patients. The main characteristics of health care seeking behavior is summarized from five dimensions: when to seek medical aid, where to select hospitals, what to select treatments, how to communicate between doctor and patient and how to pay medical costs. In order to improve the scientificity of clinical decision-making, this paper puts forward the cultural literacy and basic requirements to the cancer patients and their relatives. Guiding cancer patients to seek medical treatment scientifically, giving full play to the advantages of health policies and improving the utilization efficiency of medical resources are of great significance to promoting doctor-patient communication, improving medical experience and the effect of cancer prevention and treatment.