心血管疾病(cardiovascular diseases, CVD)是一种多因素引起的慢性非传染性疾病,发病率和死亡率均居于各种疾病之首,不仅对人类健康构成严峻的挑战,还给个人、家庭乃至社会带来庞大的经济负担,是社会经济发展必须正视和解决的重大问题。在人口老龄化和代谢危险因素持续流行的双重压力下,我国心血管疾病的发病率持续上升,对其防治策略和包括医疗资源在内的各种资源配置提出了新要求。文章在系统性回顾心血管疾病在过去20年对我国乃至世界范围内健康和社会经济影响的基础上,提出防控心血管疾病的针对性建议,包括维护心血管健康的具体举措,构建疾病防控新格局的主要策略,以及提升基层医疗机构的慢病管理能力的思路,以期在顶层设计和统一协调下开展全面行动,在多个领域协同推进、形成合力,有效遏制并逆转心血管疾病发病率和死亡率增高的趋势。
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a kind of chronic noninfectious disease caused by multiple factors, with the highest morbidity and mortality among all diseases.CVD not only poses a severe challenge to human health but also brings enormous economic burdens to individuals, families, and even society. It is a major problem that must be faced and solved in social and economic development. Under the dual pressure of population aging and the continued prevalence of metabolic risk factors, the incidence of CVD increases in China, which puts forward new requirements for prevention and treatment strategies and various resource allocations including medical resources. Based on a systematic review of the health and socioeconomic impacts of CVD in China and around the world over the past 20 years, this paper proposes targeted recommendations for the prevention and control of CVD, including specific measures to maintain cardiovascular health, main strategies to build a new pattern of disease prevention and control, and ideas to improve the chronic disease management capacity of primary medical institutions. The aim is to carry out comprehensive actions under top-level design and unified coordination, and form synergy in multiple fields to effectively curb and reverse the trend of increasing morbidity and mortality of CVD.