1.Department of Emergency/Critical Medicine,Children'2.'3.s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University
Podocyte is an important part of maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. Genetic, immune, infection and other factors often lead to the destruction of podocyte structural integrity and cell metabolism disorders, resulting in podocyte foot process fusion, podocyte detachment from the glomerular basement membrane, causing proteinuria, and even glomerular sclerosis and other kidney diseases. However, podocytes, similar to permanent cells such as nerve cells and muscle cells, are cells with no proliferative potential. Therefore, podocyte injury is crucial in the pathogenesis of renal disease. The physiological and functional changes caused by podocyte injury are not simple passive processes, but complex interactions among proteins that constitute the anatomy of podocytes. This article reviews the mechanisms of podocyte injury from the aspects of cytoskeleton injury, abnormal transcription factors in the nucleus, abnormal energy metabolism of cytoplasmic mitochondria, and changes in intracellular calcium dynamic stability.