大量研究表明间充质干细胞（Mesenchymal stem cells，MSCs）主要通过旁分泌作用抑制细胞凋亡、抑制心肌纤维化、促进血管生成、抑制免疫反应来修复心肌损伤，外泌体在其中起主要作用。外泌体是细胞分泌的天然的纳米载体, 其内含有细胞特异性蛋白、核酸和脂质。与脂质体载体相比，还具有低免疫原性、无细胞毒性及能够穿透生物屏障等优点。目前已有多种靶向心脏的工程外泌体在动物心梗模型中取得很好的疗效。本文就MSCs及MSCs来源外泌体促进心肌梗死（myocardial infarction，MI）后受损心肌修复的机制及研究进展作一综述。
There is mounting evidence that mesenchymal stem cells（MSCs） help repair damage myocardial tissues primarily by means of secreting paracrine factors to inhibit cell apoptosis, inhibit myocardial fibrosis, promote angiogenesis and inhibit immune response. Recent studies have confirmed that these effects may be mainly mediated by exosomes. Exosomes are natural nano carriers secreted by cells, and contain cell-specific nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Compared to liposome carriers, exosomes are low toxicity, less immunogenic, and can penetrate biological barriers. At present, many kinds of engineered exosomes targeting the heart have achieved good curative effects in animal models of myocardial infarction. This article reviews the and mechanism research progress of MSCs and exosomes derived from MSCs in promoting the repair of damaged myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI).