Objective: To clarify the similarities and differences of adaptive responses of different adipose tissue in C57BL/6J mice to cold stress. Methods: Mice were divided into two groups, the control group which were housed under room temperature individually and the cold stress group were housed under 6℃. Body weight, food intake and adipose tissue weight were measured. Adipose tissue morphology were observed by HE staining. The genes related to browing, mitochondrial function were quantified by qRT-PCR. The proteins related to thermogenesis were detected by western blot.Adipose tissue sympathetic innervation was shown by IHC staining. And macrophages polarization were tested by flow cytometry. Results: Thermogenic gene Ucp-1 expression were most abundant in brown adipose tissues but could not be promoted by cold. By contrast, thermogenic gene expression could be stimulated by cold stress in subcutaneous white adipose tissue in both mRNA and protein levels. Simultaneously, sympathetic innervation and macrophages M2 polarization could be induced in both brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue but not in epididymal white adipose tissue. Conclusion: Cold stress could promote sympathetic innervation and macrophage M2 polarization in subcutaneous white adipose tissue which could induced browning. The responses to cold in brown adipose tissue were mild. And cold stimulation has minimal role in regulating visceral white adipose tissues regarding themogenic gene expression and macrophage polarization.